Phacoemulsification as treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) remains more controversial than for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). If the objective of glaucoma surgery is an additional greater than or equal to 5 to 6 mm Hg reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the role of phacoemulsification should be based on the probability of achieving this. A Bayesian analysis of available data was performed to calculate the change in IOP after phacoemulsification in POAG and PACG. Standard meta-analysis formulation with prephacoemulsification and postphacoemulsification IOP—assumed to have normal distributions, with study-specific means and SDs—was used. Absolute and relative change in IOP was calculated using different priors, and sensitivity analyses were performed. The prior that just included a decrease of greater than or equal to 6 mm Hg in the 95% credible interval was identified. The probability of achieving greater than or equal to 5 to 6 mm Hg decrease in IOP (and other levels) was calculated. Depending on the prior, the probability of achieving a greater than or equal to 5 mm Hg reduction in IOP in POAG varied from 0.1% to 3%. Confidence in a greater than or equal to 6 mm Hg decrease required a prior belief that phacoemulsification produces a mean decrease of 7 mm Hg. The probability of a decrease in IOP was greater in PACG: approximately 50% probability of a greater than or equal to 5 mm Hg decrease in PACG uncontrolled on medications. Phacoemulsification in POAG has a high probability of producing a small decrease in IOP that may be useful in early, well-controlled disease. The probability of a clinically significant decrease of greater than or equal to 5 to 6 mm Hg—required for advanced/uncontrolled disease—is low. Results support the role of phacoemulsification in PACG.
Purpose: To evaluate the safety and ocular hypotensive efficacy of 4 trabodenoson doses administered twice daily over 14 or 28 days in subjects with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase 2 study, patients received unilateral topical twice-daily trabodenoson (50, 100, or 200 mcg) or placebo for 14 days, or 500 mcg trabodenoson or placebo for 28 days. Ocular and systemic safety and tolerability were assessed by examinations, clinical and laboratory studies. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed using Goldmann tonometry.
Results: Trabodenoson was well tolerated; no clinically meaningful ocular or systemic side effects were identified. Trabodenoson produced a dose-dependent IOP reduction. IOP reductions in the 500 mcg group were significantly greater than placebo at all time points at Day 28. Mean IOP reductions from diurnal baseline ranged from −3.5 to −5.0 mmHg with a mean change of −4.1 mmHg in the 500 mcg group compared −1.0 to −2.5 mmHg with a mean change of −1.6 mmHg for the placebo group, and the Day 28 drop was significantly greater than at Day 14 (P = 0.0163) indicating improvement in IOP lowering with longer treatment time. IOP remained significantly reduced 24 h after the final 500 mcg dose (P = 0.048).
Conclusion: Twice-daily ocular doses of trabodenoson, from 50 to 500 mcg, were well tolerated and showed a dose-related decrease in IOP that was statistically significant and clinically relevant at 500 mcg in patients with ocular hypertension or POAG.
These days, most eyecare practices have started to incorporate digital communication tools to interact with their patient base. Modern consumers are thrilled with the option to email, text or Facebook message as opposed to having to pick up a phone to call for information or to perform basic functions like scheduling appointments or ordering contact lenses.
Approximately 90% of uveal melanomas develop in the choroid, with the remainder arising in the ciliary body or the iris. The treatment of uveal melanoma is aimed at conserving the eye and useful vision, and, if possible, preventing metastatic disease. Enucleation is now reserved for tumors that are large and/or involve the optic disc, having largely been replaced by various forms of radiotherapy (plaque brachytherapy, proton beam or stereotactic radiotherapy) and laser therapy. Whereas iridectomy and iridocyclectomy are widely performed, transscleral exoresection of choroidal tumors is performed only in a few centers because it requires special skills and hypotensive anesthesia. Transretinal endoresection using vitrectomy equipment is easier but controversial because of concerns about tumor seeding. Long-term postoperative surveillance is necessary to identify and treat local tumor recurrence and any other complications, such as radiation-induced morbidity, and to provide counseling to the patient. Factors predicting metastasis include older age, large tumor size, ciliary body involvement, extraocular spread, epithelioid cytomorphology, chromosome 3 loss, chromosome 8q gain, class 2 gene expression profile, loss of BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), and the presence of inflammation. Prognostication is enhanced by multivariable analysis combining clinical, histologic, and genetic factors, also taking the patient’s age and sex into account. As there is a lack of options for treating metastases, much research is focused on identifying potential therapeutic targets.
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy, tolerability, safety, and usage patterns of prostaglandin analog/prostamide (PGA/P)-containing topical ocular hypotensives in ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open-angle glaucoma in the Turkish clinical setting.
Invited Program Subspecialty Coordinators and Session Topics
As the longest continuous international medical meeting in the world, the World Ophthalmology Congress® (WOC) is designed to address all subspecialties and related interests in ophthalmology. There are 131 Invited Program Subspecialty Coordinators (representing 36 countries) who are working to organize over 110 scientific program and Subspecialty Day sessions in addition to the inaugural WOC Breakfast Club events.
Лучшие люди, по этой версии издания
Welcome to The Power List 2016 – our second foray into the Top 100 most influential people in the world of ophthalmology.
Though we realize our list can (and should) never be definitive, who can argue that the faces within – both familiar and new – do not beautifully highlight the brilliance and diversity found within the field?
Here, we celebrate 100 reasons to be proud of ophthalmology.
Purpose: To describe the Glaucoma Staging Application (GSA), a new application for automated classification of visual field (VF) severity that can be used in any Humphrey perimeters. We also tested and validated its performance in staging glaucomatous VFs defects and assessed its reproducibility
Glaucoma comprises a group of progressive, neurodegenerative disorders characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and nerve fiber layer atrophy. Several randomized controlled trials have consistently demonstrated the efficacy of intraocular pressure lowering to slow or halt the measurable progression of the disease. Medical therapy, in places where it is easily accessible, is often the primary method to lower intraocular pressure. We review the medical options currently available and possible future options currently in development. The 5 contemporary classes of topical agents in use include prostaglandin analogs, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, alpha agonists, and cholinergics. In addition, several fixed combination agents are commercially available. Agents from each of these classes have unique mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and other characteristics that impact how they are used in clinical practice. Despite the plethora of medical options available, there are limitations to topical ophthalmic therapy such as the high rate of noncompliance and local and systemic adverse effects. Alternate and sustained drug delivery models, such as injectable agents and punctal plug delivery systems, may in the future alleviate some such concerns and lead to increased efficacy of treatment while minimizing adverse effects.
Purpose: To evaluate the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect and safety parameters following treatment with two trabecular micro-bypass stents and topical prostaglandin in phakic eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on two preoperative medications.
Purpose: To obtain pilot data on posture-induced changes of intraocular pressure (IOP), systemic pressure, and pattern electroretinogram (PERG) predictive of future optic nerve tissue loss glaucoma suspects (GSs).
Methods: Mean peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured with optical coherence tomography 2 times/year in 28 GS aged 58+/-8.9 years over 5.0+/-0.73 years. All patients had a baseline PERG, IOP, and brachial blood pressure measurements in the seated and -10 degrees head-down-body-tilt (HDT) position. Outcome measures were seated/HDT PERG amplitude and phase, IOP, mean arterial blood pressure, and estimated ocular perfusion pressure. An additional group of 11 similarly aged controls aged 56.9+/-13 years was tested for comparison.
Results: Although all GS had initial RNFLT in the normal range, 9/28 of them developed significant (P<0.05) loss of mean RNFLT [thinners (T)] over the follow-up period as opposed to 19/28 who did not [nonthinners (NT)]. Significant (P<0.05) differences between similarly aged controls, NT, and T were found in PERG amplitude, PERG phase, mean arterial blood pressure, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure. A nominal logistic regression using baseline PERG and hemodynamic variables was able to distinguish T from NT with an area under receiving operator characteristic of 0.89 (SE, 0.07).
Conclusions: Baseline PERG, IOP, and systemic blood pressure, together with their changes upon HDT, may have predictive value for future loss of optic nerve tissue in GS. This study supports the rationale for a full-scale clinical trial to identify patients at high risk of development of glaucoma.
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